Lecture 19. October 28 and 29.
Afterthoughts. In order to make a place for psychology at the table of science, psychology’s founder, Wilhelm Wundt, proclaimed an “alliance” between philosophical psychology and physiology, fulfilling an unbroken tradition reaching back to ancient Greece. Claimed as an ally, physiology at the same time posed a danger to psychology, threatening its autonomy as a science by reducing mental concepts to neural facts and its existence as a discipline by revealing its subject matter—the soul, or its replacement, consciousness—to be an illusion. Redefining psychology as the science of behavior dispensed with the ghost in the machine, but only postponed psychology’s reckoning with physiology. While the biological substrates of behavior eluded early neuroscience, they had to be there and would one day be discovered.
The aim and concepts of reductionism were developed by philosophers in the positivist tradition that founded philosophy…
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